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Dry soil. Prairies, woodland edges.
Southern NH south to VA, west to WI, IA, KS, and OK.
Perennial. Leaves opposite, thick, somewhat pubescent, ovate to elliptic-oblong, acuminate to acute, short petiolate, rounded at base. Corona hoods red to purple, with slender horn-like processes originating near their bases; reflexed corolla lobes 5 mm or longer, deep red or purple
Flowers June to July
Wetland Indicator: Facultative Upland
Prefers edges of woods that are shaded for part of the day. Contains cardiac glycosides.
Foster, S. and R.A. Caras. 1994. A Field Guide to Venomous Animals and Poisonous Plants: North America North of Mexico.
Houghton Mifflin Company. New York, NY. 244 pp.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
© Michael Hough 2004