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Shaded woods, fields and along banks. Slightly acid, sandy or rocky, well-drained soils. Also on steep, north-facing seepage slopes.
Quebec and Ontario west to southeast MN, KS, and CO, south to FL, TX, and AZ.
Semi-evergreen from a rootstock 2-3.5 mm thick. Fertile leaves erect; rachis dark brown; leaflets alternate, toothed or serrate, eared. Sterile leaflets short and pendent.
Fruiting June to July
Wetland Indicator: Facultative Upland
Resembles a slender Christmas fern.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
© Michael Hough 2004