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Shaded, limestone outcrops.
Often growing with mosses on rocks.
Nearly circumboreal; south in North America to Nova Scotia, northern VT, northern NY, WI, CO and WA.
Spreading, rosette-like habit, growing from a rhizome 1.5-2 mm thick; epipetric (growing on rocks). Sterile leaves evergreen, laying flat to substrate; fertile leaves upright; leaflets mostly opposite, rounded; rachis purple-brown, wiry and brittle.
Can sometimes be found growing in shaded crevices of limestone outcrops.
Cobb, B. 1984. A Field Guide to Ferns and Their Related Families.
Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, NY
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
© Michael Hough 2004