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Mesic prairies. Dry woods.
ME west to British Columbia, south to GA, AR, and NM.
Perennial from a short, stout rhizome or branched caudex, sometimes with slender, creeping red rhizomes as well; stems glaucous, 30-100 cm. Leaves firm and leathery with auriculate-clasping bases. Inflorescence glabrous; flowers pale blue-purple, occasionally white; phyllaries firm with green rhombic tips. Achenes glabrous.
Flowers August to October
Wetland Indicator: Upland
Can often be found blooming in calcareous woodlands in the fall.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
© Michael Hough 2004