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Moist, rocky or gravelly soil, woods, prairies
Southern NY to NC and northern GA, west to NB and TX. Introduced to areas outside of its native range
Perennial, to 1.5 m, glabrous. Leaves digitately tri-foliate; leaflets obovate to oblanceolate, 4-8 cm; stipules lanceolate or lance-ovate, persistent to anthesis, as long or longer than the petioles. Racemes few or solitary, to 40 cm; flowers blue-purple or rarely white, 2-2.7 cm; calyx bilabiate, calyx 8-10 mm long. Pods black, 3-5 cm; stipe slightly exceeding the calyx.
Flowers May to June
Wetland Indicator: Upland
Often cultivated for its showy blue-violet flowers, escaped in many areas outside its natural range.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
© Michael Hough 2004