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Moist humus, decaying logs, base of trees. Often in swamps, hemlock forests.
Much of eastern U.S. and parts of the west. In mountains in the south. These were photographed in central NY.
Dioicous, deep-green, leafy liverwort. Branching pattern forked. Leaves with three triangular lobes, in two overlapping rows of incubous leaf arrangement (like roof shingles when branch held with the tip down); an additional row runs along the bottom with leaves that have 4-5 lobes. Sporophytes rare.
Spores produced in May and into the summer
Can form extensive colonies around the base of trees. One of the more common leafy liverworts in upstate NY.
Crum, Howard. 1991. Liverworts and Hornworts of Southern Michigan.
University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI.
© Michael Hough 2004