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Muddy shores of ponds and streams. Occasionally in boggy areas.
Asclepias incarnata, Bidens coronata, Carex crinita, Cicuta bulbifera, Impatiens capensis, Juncus effusus, Leersia oryzoides, Lemna minor, Sagittaria latifolia, Typha latifolia
Widespread in temperate North America.
Annual with glabrous or scabrous hispid stems 0.1-1.0 m. Leaves opposite, simple, sessile to connate, serrate. Flower heads usually nodding in fruit; achenes with a convex, cartilaginous summit; flowers bright yellow, almost greenish.
Flowers mid June to early October
Wetland indicator: Obligate
This plant can become dominant following destruction of shoreline vegetation or after shoreline reconstruction.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois
Michael Hough © 2004