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Moist or wet soil. In sun or shade.
Quebec and Ontario west to MN, south to FL and NM.
Perennial herb with simple, erect unarmed stems to 1 m. Leaves opposite, on long petioles, ovate to lance-ovate, acute or acuminate, coarsely serrate, 3-nerved. Usually dioecious; flowers very small, in cylindrical spikes from upper leaf axils. Fruit an ovate achene with two minute wings.
Flowers July and August
Wetland indicator: Facultative Wetland +
Often found in moist woods. Resembles nettles but lacks stinging hairs.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois
Michael Hough © 2004