Campanula americana L. - American bellflower


 

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Campanula americana - (image 1 of 5)

 

Taxonomy

Family: Campanulaceae

Habitat

Moist open woodlands, woodland borders and shaded floodplains.

Associates

Acer saccharum, Celtis occidentalis, Eupatorium rugosum, Geum canadense, Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, Ostrya virginiana, Podophyllum peltatum, Prunus serotina, Tilia americana, Viola pubescens.

Distribution

Ontario west to MN, south to FL and OK.

Morphology

Winter-annual or biennial with milky sap; stems erect, often branching, to 2 m. Leaves alternate, thin, serrate, lanceolate, acuminate, tapered at base, 7-15 cm including petiole. Flowers blue, in elongate terminal spikes; corolla rotate, 2.5 cm wide; sepals linear, spreading, 5-10 mm; style curved downward with an upcurved tip.

Notes

Flowers early July to early November

Wetland indicator: Facultative

The blue flowers in late summer woods are eye-catching.

References

Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.

The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY

 

Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

 


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Michael Hough 2004