Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Sw. - Toothwort, Pepper Root


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Cardamine concatenata - (image 1 of 6)



Family: Brassicaceae


Mesic woods.


Woody associates: Acer saccharum, Fraxinus americana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Prunus serotina, Prunus virginiana, Quercus rubra, Ribes missouriense, Sambucus canadensis, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, Vitis riparia.


ME and southern Quebec west to MN, south to FL, LA, and OK.


Herbaceous perennial to 40 cm from a segmented rhizome. Leaves whorled, normally 3, each with 3 deeply lobed segments; leaf segments linear-oblong to lanceolate, the terminal sometimes deeply bifid. Flowers white to pale lavender, petals 4. Fruit a silique.


Flowers mid March to late May

Wetland indicator: Facultative Upland

Grows from a shallow, segmented, whitish rhizome said to have a pungent taste; can be mixed with salt and vinegar as a substitute for horseradish or eaten raw.


Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.

The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY


Peterson, L. A. 1977. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants: Eastern and central North America.

Houghton Mifflin Company. New York, NY


Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.




 Michael Hough 2004