Coeloglossum viride  (L.) Hartm. - Long-bracted Green Orchid


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Coeloglossum viride - (image 1 of 5)



Family: Orchidaceae


Synonyms include Habenaria viridis, Coeloglossum bracteatum, and Dactylorhiza viridis. 


Moist woods.




Circumboreal, south in America to NJ, MD, WV, OH, IA, and NE, and in mountains to NC and CO.


Herbaceous perennial with fleshy, forked roots that are renewed annually; stems stout or slender, 20-50 cm; lowest 1-2 leaves reduced to bladeless sheaths; main foliage leaves three or more, obovate to oblanceolate; 5-12 cm, up to 5 cm wide, the upper gradually reduced and passing into bracts; inflorescence 5-20 cm; bracts lanceolate, foliaceous, the lower surpassing the flowers; flowers greenish, often tinged with purple; lip 6-10 mm, the margins upcurved at the base, the body obcuneately widened distally, terminating in three teeth, the central one the shortest; lateral petals lanceolate, nearly concealed by the incurved sepals; spur 2-3 mm, pouch-like, with a minute orifice.


Fruiting May to June

Wetland indicator: FAC

This species is widely distributed but populations can be difficult to find. North American and east Asian plants are var. bracteata. May be moved back to the genus Dactylorhiza in the future.


Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY




Michael Hough 2018