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Woods and rocky slopes.
Newfoundland south to SC and GA, west to southern Ontario, MN, KS, and OK.
Evergreen from a thick, stout, ascending to erect rhizome. Leaves firm, dark green; petiole 10-20 cm, with a tuft of slender, concolorous, pale red-brown scales at the base, and smaller, scattered scale above; blade lance-oblong, to 25 cm wide and 45 cm long, broadest just above the base, mostly glabrous with a few hair-like scales, pinnate-pinnatifid to bipinnate; pinnae 15-20 pairs, the larger with mostly 10-15 pairs of segments, the larger segments 1-2 cm, with 6-9 pairs of veins; sori submarginal, near the sinuses between the teeth.
Spores produced in June
Wetland indicator: Facultative Upland
Also called Leatherleaf Woodfern.
Cobb, B. 1984. A Field Guide to Ferns and Their Related Families.
Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, NY
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2009