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Cool, moist woods.
Circumboreal. All of Canada, south into the northern U.S., as far south as VA and NC in the northeast.
Perennial with annual stems; dimorphic. Stems hollow, sheaths toothed; sterile stems with whorled branches, the central cavity more than half the diameter of the stem; fertile stems smooth, succulent, green to brownish, with whorled branches.
Strobilli produced in May
Wetland indicator: Facultative Wetland
Endangered in several states.
Gleason, Henry A.
and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G.
Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
USDA, NRCS. 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov).
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Michael Hough © 2004