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Common in marshes. Also characteristic of calcareous fens.
In fens it grows with Angelica atropurpurea, Caltha palustris, Campanula aparinoides, Cirsium muticum, Pedicularis lanceolata, Sambucus canadensis, Solidago patula, Symplocarpus foetidus.
Herbaceous perennial. Principle stem leaves whorled, 4 to 5 per whorl. Stem purple or purple-spotted, not glaucous. Heads mostly more than 8-flowered. Inflorescences usually flattish.
Flowers mid June to early October
Wetland indicator: Obligate
This species can form large stands in mucky wetlands that have been heavily grazed (Swink 341). It is fairly common on the open banks of streams that run through fens. A good plant for naturalizing in moist areas.
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2004