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Bogs, fens, peaty prairies, prairie marshes, upland swamps, low pastures. Also in the zone of litter accumulation around lake shores.
Most of the northern 3/4 of the US.
Herbaceous perennial. to 2' high. Leaves opposiute, to 3" long, laceolate, glabrous or glabrate above or with appressed hair along the midrib, distinctly petiolate; lower and medium leaves pinnately incised. Stems 4-sided. Flowers tiny, tubular, white, in clusters in the axils of the leaves; calyx lobes attenuate to long subulate, with a prominent midvein, conspicuously surpassing the nutlets.
Flowers late July to late September.
Wetland indicator: Obligate
I could not find a photograph of the flowers but these show the early stages of fruit development. They also show the difference between the leaves of this species and those of L. americanus.
Niering, W. A. 1979. The Audubon society field guide to North American
wildflowers: eastern region.
Knopf/Random House, New York.
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
USDA, NRCS. 2002.
The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov).
National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Michael Hough © 2005