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Moist, acid places. Can be abundant in swampy woods.
Circumboreal. In America from Newfoundland to Saskatchewan, south to FL, TX, and into the tropics.
Perennial to nearly 2 m high. Leaves bipinnate; petioles glabrous; pinnae 5-7 pairs, subopposite; sterile pinnules alternate, serrulate, 7-10 to a side, sessile; fertile part of blade terminal, greenish turning brown.
Spores late May to July.
Wetland indicator: Obligate
American plants are var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2005