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Common in moist woodlands.
Quebec to Manitoba, south to FL and TX. Also occurs in eastern Asia.
Herbaceous perennial to 1 m. Leaves opposite, coarsely toothed, to 6" long, petiolate. Flowers small, in terminal and axillary racemes; corolla 2-lipped, the lower lip white and exceeding the upper lip; upper lip purplish; stamens 4. Fruit an achene that hangs down against the stem.
Flowers late June to early September
Wetland indicator: Upland
Easiest to identify in the fall when the seeds are mature.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2005