| back | forward |
Disturbed woodlands, pastures. Border between meadow and woodland. Calcareous fen.
Found in pastures with Erigeron annuus, Fragaria virginiana, Monarda fistulosa, Rudbeckia hirta.
Throughout the U.S. and southern Canada.
Erect, herbaceous perennial to 1' high. Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate to lance-ovate, entire to slightly toothed, typically crenate at the base, more than twice as long as wide. Stem square. Flowers blue-purple, to .5" long, in dense terminal spikes; calyx bilabiate, the lower lip 3-lobed, the center lobe fringed and whitish; stamens 4; floral bracts rounded, hairy.
Flowers mid June to late October
Wetland indicator: Facultative Upland in the Chicago Region
This variety represents the native element of this species. The Eurasian var. vulgaris is a common lawn weed.
Niering, W. A. 1979. The Audubon society field guide to North American
wildflowers: eastern region.
Knopf/Random House, New York.
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2005