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Various, including thickets, sterile acid sites, bogs.
Newfoundland west to MI and MO, south FL to TX.
Herbaceous perennial to 1.5 m, occasionally to 2.5 m, from long creeping rhizomes. Leaves mainly cauline, numerous, slightly to very strongly rugose-veiny, not triple-nerved, glabrous or scabrous above, usually hirsute at least on the midrib and main veins below, lance-elliptic to lance-ovate or rhombic-elliptic, serrate, subsessile and not clasping the stem. Flowers yellow; heads crowded in paniculiform inflorescences; inflorescence branches recurved-secund; involucral bracts slender, not more than about 0.6 mm wide; rays 6-11, small; disk flowers 4-8.
Flowers August to October
Wetland indicator: Facultative +
This species has two recognized subspecies, ssp. aspera and ssp. rugosa, the latter divided into three varieties.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of
Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2009