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Open woods, fields, prairies. Increases after fire in sandy Black Oak savannas.
MA and southern NH west to MN and WY, south to GA, AR, TX, and NM.
Upright perennial to 1.5 m. Stems glabrous or slightly scabrous. Leaves thick and firm, smooth, entire or slightly toothed; cauline leaves more than 25, gradually reduced in size from the base to and into the inflorescence; lower leaves less than 7 times as long as wide and scarcely sheathing at the base. Inflorescence a dense, terminal thyrse; heads not secund on the branches; rays 6-8; disk flowers 7-9.
Flowers July to October
Wetland indicator: Upland
These plants were photographed in northern IL on old dunes near Lake Michigan
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of
Northeastern United States
and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2009