Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray - Spring Ladies' Tresses


 

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Spiranthes vernalis - (image 1 of 4)

 

Taxonomy

Family: Orchidaceae

Habitat

Dry to moist meadows, dune hollows, prairies, old fields, roadsides, cemeteries, lawns.

Associates

 

 Distribution

Atlantic coastal plain from MA to FL, west to Ohio River Valley, Kansas and TX.

Morphology

Perennial 20-65 cm. Roots numerous, spreading, mostly to 1 cm diam., stout. Leaves persisting through anthesis, to 45, basal, reduced to sheathing bracts upward on stem, spreading, linear-lanceolate, keeled, 525 1 cm. Inflorescences: spikes loosely to tightly spiraled, 37 or more flowers per cycle of spiral, sometimes nearly secund; rachis densely pubescent, trichomes articulate, pointed, capitate glands absent. Flowers nodding to somewhat ascending, white to cream, mostly gaping; sepals distinct to base, lanceolate, 610 23 mm; lateral sepals spreading; petals oblong, 69 2 mm, apex obtuse; lip creamy yellow centrally or some individuals with 2 brown-orange spots, ovate, 58 4 mm; veins of lip straight, branches parallel; basal calli conic, to 1 mm; viscidium linear-lanceolate; ovary mostly 8 mm. Seeds monoembryonic. 2n = 30

Notes

Flowers from January in Florida to October in the north. In southern NY and NJ it flowers in July.

Wetland indicator: NA

This species is sometimes confused with S. lacera, from which it can be distinguished by its centrally yellow lip rather than green. It can be distinguished from all similar species by the presence in the inflorescence of abundant articulate, pointed trichomes (hairs).

 References

Sheviak, C.J. and P.M. Brown. 2002. Spiranthes. pp. 498, 499, 530, 537. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 26. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Available at http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=131021 [accessed March 2021].


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 Michael Hough 2021