Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière - Eastern Hemlock


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Tsuga canadensis - (image 1 of 7)



Family: Pinaceae


Moist habitats, including rocky ridges, hillsides, old dune slopes, and swampy woodlands. A climax species and very shade tolerant.




Nova Scotia west to MI, WI, and parts of MN, south to NJ, DE, OH, IN and in mountains to GA and AL.


Evergreen tree to 30 m. Twigs pubescent. Leaves blunt, 8-15 mm, dark green above with two pale stripes below, twisted at the base so as to appear two-ranked, tapering to a short petiole and jointed at the base to a minute, persistent sterigmata (peg-like structures). Cones ellipsoid, 12-20 mm, scales erect or ascending, the exposed portion of the middle scales broader than long.


Flowers NA

Wetland indicator: Facultative Upland

The leaves are rich in Vitamin C and can be used to make tea.



Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.

The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY


Peterson, L. A. 1977. A Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants: Eastern and central North America.

Houghton Mifflin Company. New York, NY


Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.




 Michael Hough © 2005