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Dunes, sandy oak savanna, black-soil prairies, and hill prairies. Dry fields and open woods.
ME west to MN, south to northern FL and eastern TX.
Herbaceous perennial from an erect rootstock, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves all basal, 3-parted, the lateral segment 3-5 cleft into linear or lanceolate divisions. Flowers 2-4 cm wide; petals beardless, lilac-purple, the upper 2 sometimes darker purple; stamens orange, exserted; does not produce cleistogamous flowers; style clavate, beakless, obliquely concave at the top. Seeds copper-brown.
Flowers late April to early August
Wetland indicator: Upland
Notice that the stamens protrude from the flower.
Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY
Swink, F. and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region.
Indiana Academy of Science. The Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.
Michael Hough © 2005