Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Wood - Large Toothwort


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Cardamine maxima - (image 1 of 3)



Family: Brassicaceae



Rich woods.




ME and New Brunswick to MI and WI, south to WV and KY.


Perennial herb from a rhizome with alternating enlarged and slightly constricted regions; stems 15-40 cm, glabrous; basal leaves similar to the cauline, usually present at anthesis; cauline leaves 3, alternate, ternate, the segments petiolulate, lance-ovate to rhombic-ovate, crenate-toothed, the lateral asymmetrical, or with a lateral lobe, or bifid nearly to the base; hairs of the leaflet margins spreading, 0.2-0.3 mm; sepals 5-8 mm; petals 11-17 mm, white to dull purplish; fruits 2-4 cm long.


Flowers April to May

Wetland indicator: NA

Sometimes treated as C. x maxima as it has been thought to be a hybrid of C. diphylla and C. concatenata.


Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Ed.
The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY




 Michael Hough 2018